Monday OT - July 6: Zheng He's Third Return

July 6 is day 188 of the Gregorian Calendar year,
Boomtime, Confusion 41, 3186 YOLD (Discordian)
And let us not forget 13.0.7.11.14 mlc (the Mayan Long Count)

Zheng He Treasure Ship

Zheng He Treasure Ship

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WOW! On July 6, 1411, Zheng He returned to Nanjing after the Third Treasure Voyage. So? This is one prodigious piece of a prodigious series of events. In context, it boggles the mind.  This third voyage started in the fall of 1409 and  went to such places as Java, Malacca, Ceylon, Quilon, Cochin, and Calcutta.  Like the first two such voyages, it stopped and turned around at Calcutta. The next one,  1413 to 1415, continued on to Hormuz, and the final three, ending July 22, 1433 continued as far as the east coast of Africa. In all they visited many places, often several times, throughout the South China Sea, Indian Ocean, Arab Gulf and Africa, such as: Brunei, Siam, Southeast Asia, Java, Ceylon,  Malacca, Hormuz, Aden, Mecca, the Maldives, Mogadishu, Brava, Zhubu, and Malindi.

CONSIDER: It wasn't until 1484 that Diogo Cão out of Portugal found the mouth of the Congo River. Furthermore, it was really a major BFD for Portugal and Europe when Portugal's Bartolomeu Dias made it all the way around the tip of Africa to  Boesman's River on the eastern cape.  The truly fun fact, as to the timelines is that Diogo Cão and Bartolomeu Dias were explorers, but not Zheng He. He was on a trade mission, and was following a well established Chinese trade route as far as Hormuz.  Africa was a stretch, but the Arabs had been trading and more in Africa for some time and no doubt provided charts and guides. How Well Established was this route? Since at least the Han Dynasty, 202 BCE to 222 CE.
Hello?  200 CE , early third century, hmmm.

NOW The Good Part The first of Sheng He's voyages, which sailed on July 11, 1405, consisted of 317 ships with 28,000 crew. Unheard of and unimaginable at that date. Phillip The Sap's great Spanish Armada consisted of 130 ships.  The combined fleets at the Battle of Trafalgar contained 60 ships of the line, 9 frigates and 4 lesser vessels.  Perhaps the Chinese fleets were so huge because their ships were too small to carry much? Bwahahaha.  Those ships measured from 370 to 440 feet long and 150 to 180 feet in beam (width). Comparisons -

Columbus' three 1492 ships were 67, 70 and 74 feet long.  Admiral Nelson's flagship at Trafalgar, the HMS Victory, was 227 feet long and 52 feet in beam. But, that was a warship, how about merchants? There was a period of great maritime trade between Europe and India during the 17th through 19th centuries. The typical East Indiaman  was roughly 120 to 150 feet long. How about direct trade to china? The queen of them all, Donald McKay's phenomenally gorgeous Flying Cloud, launched in 1831, 420 years later that this voyage, was 235 feet long with a 41 foot beam.

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On this day in history:

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371 BCE – The Battle of Leuctra, where Epaminondas destroyed Sparta's military supremacy with an inferior force and a clever tactic.  Though this tactic (oblique order) was once partial  proof of his military genius, some revisionists now seem to assert that it was an accident or something, perhaps because both he and his crack troops, The  Sacred Band of Thebes, were all gay.
1411 – China's Admiral Zheng He returned to Nanjing after the third treasure voyage 
1415 – Jan Hus was condemned as a heretic and sentenced to be burned at the stake.
1484 – Portuguese sea captain Diogo Cão found the mouth of the Congo River.
1535 – Sir Thomas More was executed for treason against King Henry VIII of England.
1885 – Louis Pasteur successfully tested his vaccine against rabies on Joseph Meister
1887 – David Kalakaua, monarch of the Kingdom of Hawaii, was forced to sign the Bayonet Constitution,
1892 – Striking steelworkers engaged battled with Pinkerton agents during the Homestead Strike
1917 – Arabian troops led by T. E. Lawrence and Auda ibu Tayi captured Aqaba from the Ottoman Empire during the Arab Revolt. The Brits screwed the Arabs anyway.
1940 – Story Bridge, in Brisbane, Australia's longest cantilever bridge iformally opened.
1942 – Anne Frank and her family went into hiding in the "Secret Annexe"
1944 – Jackie Robinson refused to move to the back of a bus, leading to a court-martial.
1947 – The AK-47 went into production in the Soviet Union.
1957 – Althea Gibson wonthe Wimbledon championships 
1957 – John Lennon and Paul McCartney met for the first time
1962 – The Sedan nuclear test takes place scattering fallout far and wide
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1967 – Nigerian forces invaded Biafra, beginning Nigerian Civil War
1988 – The Piper Alpha drilling platform was destroyed by explosions and fires.
1990 – The Electronic Frontier Foundation was founded.
2013 – A 73-car oil train derails in the town of Lac-Mégantic, Quebec and exploded into flames, killing at least 47 people and destroying more than 30 buildings in the town's central area. Ah, but that's the ahl bidness.

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Born this day in:

Frida Kahlo - Self Portrait Dedicated to Dr Eloesser

1766 – Alexander Wilson, poet, ornithologist, and illustrator (d. 1813)
1781 – Stamford Raffles, politician, founded Singapore (d. 1826)
1799 – Louisa Caroline Huggins Tuthill, author (d. 1879)[14]
1840 – José María Velasco Gómez, painter and academic (d. 1912)
1887 – Marc Chagall, painter and poet (d. 1985)
1907 – Frida Kahlo, painter and educator (d. 1954)
1912 – Molly Yard, feminist (d. 2005)
1924 – Louie Bellson, drummer, composer, and bandleader (d. 2009)
1925 – Bill Haley,singer, songwriter, and guitarist
1926 – Dorothy E. Smith, sociologist
1928 – Bernard Malgrange, mathematician
1937 – Gene Chandler,  singer, songwriter, and producer
1939 – Jet Harris, bass player (The Shadows, The Jeff Beck Group, and The Vipers Skiffle Group) (d. 2011)
1949 – Phyllis Hyman, singer, songwriter ,and actress (d. 1995)
1949 – Michael Shrieve, composer, drummer, and percussionist
1953 – Nanci Griffith, singer, songwriter, and guitarist
1967 – Heather Nova, singer, songwriter, and guitarist
1970 – Martin Smith, singer, songwriter ,and guitarist

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Died this day in:

V = IR

Georg Ohm

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1415 – Jan Hus, priest, philosopher, and reformer (b. 1369)[2]
1535 – Thomas More, lawyer and politician,
1813 – Granville Sharp, activist (b. 1735)
1854 – Georg Ohm, physicist and mathematician (b. 1789)
1893 – Guy de Maupassant, short story writer, novelist, and poet (b. 1850)
1961 – Scott LaFaro, bassist (b. 1936)
1962 – William Faulkner, novelist and short story writer
1971 – Louis Armstrong, singer and trumpet player (b. 1901)
1979 – Van McCoy, singer, songwriter, and producer (b. 1940)
1992 – Marsha P. Johnson, drag queen performer and activist (b. 1945)
1999 – Joaquín Rodrigo, pianist and composer (b. 1901)
2003 – Buddy Ebsen, actor, singer, and dancer (b. 1908)
2004 – Syreeta Wright, singer and songwriter (b. 1946)
2019 – João Gilberto, singer, songwriter, and guitaris

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Holidays, Holy Days, Festivals, Feast Days, Days of Recognition, and such:
International Kissing Day (informally observed)
National Fried Chicken Day (United States)
National Air Traffic Control Day

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Music goes here, iirc, well, With apologies Wink

Louie Bellson

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Bill Haley

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Gene Chandler

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Jet Harris

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Phyllis Hyman

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Nanci Griffith

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Georg Ohm

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Louis Armstrong

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Van McCoy

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Joaquín Rodrigo

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Syreeta Wright

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João Gilberto

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Image is public domain

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It's an open thread, so do your thing

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magiamma's picture

Et al

Gardening like crazy. Weather is hot. There's a whole book written about those Chinese explorers. 1424 is the name, maye. The name is a date. Very interesting book.

Some good news, if it really works.

New NAFTA Trade Deal Deepens Oil and Gas Dependency During Climate Crisis
https://www.desmogblog.com/2020/06/30/nafta-usmca-trade-deal-oil-gas-cli...

Reading between the lines of the 2,000-plus page deal, environmentalists say it is bad news for North America’s climate future. Far from addressing the crisis, the deal provides loopholes for oil, gas, and mining companies to operate across borders, and paves the way for U.S.companies to export even more fracked natural gas across the border into Mexico.

The United States Trade Representative boasts that the USMCA assures the “free flow of energy” without tariffs, “streamlines” liquid natural gas (LNG) export to Canada and Mexico, and “facilitates” cross-border gas and oil pipelines.

Some new climate models are projecting extreme warming. Are they correct?
https://www.yaleclimateconnections.org/2020/07/some-new-climate-models-a...

Information gleaned from this effort will act as a scientific foundation for the U.N.’s Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) next major assessment report, scheduled for release in 2021. The goal of the report – the sixth in 30 years – is to inform the international community about how much the climate has changed, and, importantly, how much change can be expected in coming decades.

A conundrum emerges

Over the past year, the CMIP6 collection of models being reviewed threw researchers an unexpected curveball: a significant number of the climate model runs showed substantially more global warming than previous model versions had projected. If accurate, the international climate goals would be nearly impossible to achieve, and there would be significantly more extreme impacts worldwide.

Think about trying to code up a model that can produce this,” Fairall muses. “Huge cloud systems are made up of a spectrum of clouds from the size of Kansas to ones that fit in the trunk of your Volkswagen.”

In the real world and the simulated model world, cloud formation depends partially on how moisture interacts with aerosols, tiny floating particles in the air. Aerosols are fine particles like smoke, sea spray, and pollutants. These tiny dust-like particles act as condensation nuclei, allowing gaseous water vapor to turn into cloud droplets.

The interplay between clouds, aerosols, and a warming climate in a model affects how much of a cooling or warming influence that model calculates.

Recently a new international dataset of emissions – including changes in the concentrations of aerosols – has been introduced into some climate models with improved cloud physics. As a result, some scientists conclude, the changes have affected cloud dynamics in these models, leading to additional warming.

Take good care and have a good one.

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Stop Climate Change Silence - Start the Conversation

Hot Air Website, Twitter, Facebook

enhydra lutris's picture

@magiamma

Energy Vault tower looks great on paper/film, and would be good for reducing our dependence on fossil fuels, but I do have some questions, that maybe they have addressed and maybe not since it seems that they're currently in the fundraising stage of things. Earthquakes and hurricanes and tornadoes are 3 of them, and, since they are utility scale, if one goes down you're looking at a grid level issue. That's partly my other issue, in a nutshell, that they're utility scale and only practical on that scale. Centralization creates vulnerabilities, so they need to be looked at as a stop gap util we can really solve the distributed system / micro-grid puzzle.

Just my early morning 2 cents worth.

Haven't looked at the desmogblog article, but no surprise with the analysis you present. If, as it seems, the petroleum based energy world is about to be priced out of the game, then it is obvious that TPTB will bust a gut to get costs down and barriers removed. "All of the above" Obama was pretty open at one point (when talking about Syria) that we won't abide anyting that impedes or interferes with the free flow of resources. (explains Libya quite well too). Look at "resources" broadly and that explains our entire global economic and foreign policy, maximum exploitation through maximum exploitability, the US corporate+government symbiote as uber-parasite.

Haven't read the linked article on climate yet either, but not too surprised by anything that would lead to a conclusion that we "misunderestimated" the problemo.

Damn, not to bright and cheerful today, am I. Heh. Ah well ...

be well and have a good one.

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That, in its essence, is fascism--ownership of government by an individual, by a group, or by any other controlling private power. -- Franklin D. Roosevelt --

Lookout's picture

This time of year it is 30 min of harvesting the garden and 2-3 hours cleaning, prepping, cooking, and storing. So that's been what I've been doing this AM.

Zheng He was a very interesting explorer.

Admiral Zheng He (aka Cheng Ho, c. 1371-1433 CE) was a Chinese Muslim eunuch explorer who was sent by the Ming dynasty emperor Yongle (r. 1403-1424 CE) on seven diplomatic missions to increase trade and secure tribute from foreign powers.

https://www.ancient.eu/article/1334/the-seven-voyages-of-zheng-he/
The Seven Voyages of Zheng He.png

As a kid I loved explorer stories...read everything about them in my elementary school library...(including more scientific ones like Humboldt and Darwin). As an adult I find wonder in the lack of stories about the impact on native peoples.

...and those ships are amazing -
https://www.thoughtco.com/zheng-hes-treasure-ships-195235

Heard a good Churchill quote recently
If You’re Going Through Hell, Keep Going
...but as quotes often do it appears attributed incorrectly. https://quoteinvestigator.com/2014/09/14/keep-going/

Thanks for the ot and music!

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“Until justice rolls down like water and righteousness like a mighty stream.”

enhydra lutris's picture

and on, throughout my life, I did serious binge-reading. Sometimes it was triggered by something, but sometimes it was as crazy as "pick a number" - I would come to the realization that there was a big chunk of the Dewey Decimal System that was more of less terra incognita, grab a sample and read it, and often get hooked. In my mid late twenties I attacked DDS 910.xx.xx and thereabouts, Explorers and Exploration, and assiduously trawled and scraped the shelves at the Berkeley Main library. How I came away ignorant of Zheng He is a mystery to me, either topic fatigue set in or stuff on him was always out, or something.

Good for the harvesting and processing and storing, enjoy now and enjoy later. We've gleaned the apricot and this year not enough to really can , so we've just been porking out. Have frozen a lot of rhubarb though, as well as eaten a fair amount too. First few green beans yesterday.

be well and have a good one.

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That, in its essence, is fascism--ownership of government by an individual, by a group, or by any other controlling private power. -- Franklin D. Roosevelt --

snoopydawg's picture

239 Experts With 1 Big Claim: The Coronavirus Is Airborne

The coronavirus is finding new victims worldwide, in bars and restaurants, offices, markets and casinos, giving rise to frightening clusters of infection that increasingly confirm what many scientists have been saying for months: The virus lingers in the air indoors, infecting those nearby.

If airborne transmission is a significant factor in the pandemic, especially in crowded spaces with poor ventilation, the consequences for containment will be significant. Masks may be needed indoors, even in socially distant settings. Health care workers may need N95 masks that filter out even the smallest respiratory droplets as they care for coronavirus patients.

Ventilation systems in schools, nursing homes, residences and businesses may need to minimize recirculating air and add powerful new filters. Ultraviolet lights may be needed to kill viral particles floating in tiny droplets indoors.

Even in its latest update on the coronavirus, released June 29, the WHO said airborne transmission of the virus is possible only after medical procedures that produce aerosols, or droplets smaller than 5 microns. (A micron is equal to 1 millionth of a meter.)

Proper ventilation and N95 masks are of concern only in those circumstances, according to the WHO. Instead, its infection control guidance, before and during this pandemic, has heavily promoted the importance of hand-washing as a primary prevention strategy, even though there is limited evidence for transmission of the virus from surfaces. (The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention now says surfaces are likely to play only a minor role.)

This is getting lots of push back from the WHO for some reason. I would like to know why they don't want to consider it. It reminds me a tad of when Dr. Fauci said that no we don't need to wear masks when it was a lie and to cover that the country didn't have enough masks for medical personnel. People go on and on about how many people died because Trump did not do this or do that, and yet Fauci gets to skate on this? As do all the governors and mayors who did or didn't do it either? Of course here is my disclaimer: I cannot stand Trump. But one person does not run the whole country. Plenty of blame to go around. Not much mention of the numbers of elderly dying in nursing homes. Or people getting infected and dying in prisons. Or....

So are cloth masks just a placebo and we all should have been wearing N95's all along? Does this explain why people who take every precaution are still getting exposed? Why the push back?

I am seeing more people writing about their experience with COVID. Here is one.

Hey, so, I got #Covid19 in March. I’ve been sick for over 3 months w/ severe respiratory, cardiovascular & neurological symptoms.

I do not want to take the chance of getting this. I wear my mask and I stay out of the public as much as possible. Store. Doctor. Even when I met with my brother at my dad's house we all wore masks. I have an N95 and after an hour it hurts my face where I had incisions moons ago. A lot. I still wear it.

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"It is remarkable that a sitting president would express less than complete confidence in the American democracy’s electoral process."

Hillary: "I'd be president today if Comey, Bernie, Bros and Putin hadn't stolen it from me."

enhydra lutris's picture

@snoopydawg

try not to go out to stores and such and always wear masks when we do, it seems only prudent.

be well, stay safe, and have a good one.

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That, in its essence, is fascism--ownership of government by an individual, by a group, or by any other controlling private power. -- Franklin D. Roosevelt --

snoopydawg's picture

.

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"It is remarkable that a sitting president would express less than complete confidence in the American democracy’s electoral process."

Hillary: "I'd be president today if Comey, Bernie, Bros and Putin hadn't stolen it from me."

enhydra lutris's picture

@snoopydawg

several times a day.

be well and have a good one.

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That, in its essence, is fascism--ownership of government by an individual, by a group, or by any other controlling private power. -- Franklin D. Roosevelt --

Anja Geitz's picture

@enhydra lutris

Probably true. But, I mean, how could you resist? Smile

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There is always Music amongst the trees in the Garden, but our hearts must be very quiet to hear it. ~ Minnie Aumonier

Anja Geitz's picture

@snoopydawg

Squeeeee!!!!

Here’s one for you...

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There is always Music amongst the trees in the Garden, but our hearts must be very quiet to hear it. ~ Minnie Aumonier

Anja Geitz's picture

Sounds like you really enjoyed writing about Zheng He’s nautical feats. Which made reading that very surprising piece of sailing history enjoyable as well! Must’ve been one helluva sight to see his fleet sail by, right?

I got a small taste of what watching a large flotilla of tall sailing ships looked like my first 4th of July in New York City during the 1986 celebration of the Statue of Liberty’s restoration. Liberty Weekend included among the celebration a fleet of “sailing ships of old that took part in a naval revue down the Hudson River, including the largest flotilla of tall ships to assemble in modern history“.

~
C60C2F62-DE32-4A32-8A24-C4B93333E068.jpeg
~

A friend of mine was a property manager who managed a luxury high rise building down by Battery Park. She commandeered a vacant apartment where we set up a lovely picnic-like spread out on the balcony overlooking the harbor. Wow. Was that a gorgeous sight to behold. These magnificent ships from around the world sailed past us, one after another, in a breathtaking pageantry of nautical craftsmanship. It made such an impression on me, that I became fascinated with the history of sailing ships.

Thanks for rekindling that nice memory. In fact, I think I’ll send my friend an email asking her if she remembers that July 4th Smile

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There is always Music amongst the trees in the Garden, but our hearts must be very quiet to hear it. ~ Minnie Aumonier

enhydra lutris's picture

@Anja Geitz

my youth seen one or more tall ships under sail, usually singly, but once or twice multiples in San Diego. We were a destination in prt because we had one there, The Star of India. Toured it a few times at dockside too, fascinating.

Had a lifetime minor fascination with ships, especially sailing ships, and boats/sailboats as well. I did pretty much enjoy writing that bit, for various reasons, including the sailing ship connection.

Your cat+kitten GIF is pretty cool too.

be well and have a good one.

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That, in its essence, is fascism--ownership of government by an individual, by a group, or by any other controlling private power. -- Franklin D. Roosevelt --

Anja Geitz's picture

@enhydra lutris

And you haven’t already read Robert K. Massie’s “Dreadnought”, you are in for a treat. Although the title is a bit misleading because “Dreadnought“ not only tells the story of the end of the British Empire’s “Splendid Isolation”, and the history of sailing ships, it also investigates the roots of World War I, going far beyond a military or naval history; it is really a political and foreign policy history.

Truly fascinating and Massie’s writing style as a historian is very engaging. If you’re not familiar with his work, he was the author of “Nicholas & Alexandra”, and brought that part of Russian history to life for me in a way no other historian ever has.

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There is always Music amongst the trees in the Garden, but our hearts must be very quiet to hear it. ~ Minnie Aumonier

enhydra lutris's picture

@Anja Geitz

I'll check into it.

be well and have a good one.

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That, in its essence, is fascism--ownership of government by an individual, by a group, or by any other controlling private power. -- Franklin D. Roosevelt --

@Anja Geitz

I was there for the '86 SOL commemoration.
Driving a 92' Bennetti motor yacht at the time. Lady X
We were chartered out with about 80 people on board.
Spent most of the time unclogging heads.
Did see some of the fireworks tho.
They had several dozen barges strung out on the east river
blowing off all kinds of amazing lights and sounds.
After a certain fashion, the crew and I hid beneath the fly bridge
oohed and ahed and ignored the pampered guests.
Got no tip on that one. Wink

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enhydra lutris's picture

@QMS

event. Pulled up some sample pics, slick.

be well and have a good one.

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That, in its essence, is fascism--ownership of government by an individual, by a group, or by any other controlling private power. -- Franklin D. Roosevelt --

Anja Geitz's picture

@QMS

What a small world! Pretty amazing day it was. So you were out there in the middle of the Hudson as the tall ships sailed by? Fantastic!

Have to ask, tho...

Spent most of the time unclogging heads.

Is this some obscure nautical term? Hahahaha!

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There is always Music amongst the trees in the Garden, but our hearts must be very quiet to hear it. ~ Minnie Aumonier

snoopydawg's picture

'Historic day' for Standing Rock as pipeline company told to shut down, remove oil

A federal judge has ordered the Dakota Access Pipeline to shut down and remove all oil within 30 days, a huge win for Standing Rock Sioux Tribe, the Cheyenne River Sioux Tribe, and the other plaintiffs.

In a 24-page order, U.S. District Judge James Boasberg wrote that he was "mindful of the disruption" that shutting down the pipeline would cause, but that it must be done within 30 days. The order comes after Boesberg said in April that a more extensive review was necessary than what the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers had already conducted and that he would consider whether the pipeline would have to be shuttered during the new assessment.

"The Court does not reach its decision with blithe disregard for the lives it will affect," Boasberg wrote Monday. "It readily acknowledges that, even with the currently low demand for oil, shutting down the pipeline will cause significant disruption to DAPL, the North Dakota oil industry, and potentially other states.

“Today is a historic day for the Standing Rock Sioux Tribe and the many people who have supported us in the fight against the pipeline,” Faith said. “This pipeline should have never been built here. We told them that from the beginning.”

When asked about the violence at the DAPL protests Obama said:

"let's see how this plays out.

This article has much more info and reactions from various players.

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"It is remarkable that a sitting president would express less than complete confidence in the American democracy’s electoral process."

Hillary: "I'd be president today if Comey, Bernie, Bros and Putin hadn't stolen it from me."

enhydra lutris's picture

@snoopydawg

be well and have a good one.

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That, in its essence, is fascism--ownership of government by an individual, by a group, or by any other controlling private power. -- Franklin D. Roosevelt --

mimi's picture

Sorry, but I need some noisy, juicy gossip:

Which one do you like better?
At least it gives the saying make dirt not wars a new angle. Make love not wars even better. Wink

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“Trauma is not what happens to you.
Trauma is what happens inside you,
as a result of what happens to you.”
— Dr. Gabor Maté

enhydra lutris's picture

@mimi

might be underlying significance. Perhaps this is why Kanye is suddenly running for President of the US.

be well and have a good one.

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That, in its essence, is fascism--ownership of government by an individual, by a group, or by any other controlling private power. -- Franklin D. Roosevelt --

mimi's picture

@enhydra lutris
my apologies for being not clear enouhg.

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“Trauma is not what happens to you.
Trauma is what happens inside you,
as a result of what happens to you.”
— Dr. Gabor Maté

mimi's picture

@mimi @mimi
on the third of July, and I think (may be I am mistaken on that) I was the first one, who did. So, no offense meant, at all.

Have a good one and stay healthy and safe.

PS : I don't know anything about Kanye. If something was written about him here, I apologize that I have missed reading it (I am really busy in real offline life, sorry) Would be nice to have a portrait kind of essay about him.

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“Trauma is not what happens to you.
Trauma is what happens inside you,
as a result of what happens to you.”
— Dr. Gabor Maté

enhydra lutris's picture

@mimi

allegedly expanded into fashion and married Kim Kardashian. Along the line he came out as some sort of Trump backer and think-alike or such and just yesterday or the day before announced that he is running for US President.

I just through that into the pot as a snarky follow-on to your sarcasm Wink

be well and have a good one

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That, in its essence, is fascism--ownership of government by an individual, by a group, or by any other controlling private power. -- Franklin D. Roosevelt --

mimi's picture

@enhydra lutris

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“Trauma is not what happens to you.
Trauma is what happens inside you,
as a result of what happens to you.”
— Dr. Gabor Maté

studentofearth's picture

In 2003 when Gavin Menzies book 1421: The Year China Discovered America was released there was significant pushback. I saw multiple opinions dismissing the hypothesis as false history since the Chinese junk was not ocean worthy. The physical evidence of Chinese voyages to India, middle east and Africa discussed in the books has been too overwhelming to ignore and acceptance has been changing.

Those large junks would have looked like floating islands from shore and the boats of local fisherman.

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Still yourself, deep water can absorb many disturbances with minimal reaction.
--When the opening appears release yourself.