Election Fraud Lies: Pennsylvania's Dominion Voting Machines Cost Trump the Election

Table of Contents
Section 1: The Lie
Section 2: The Rebuttal
Section 3: The Analysis
Section 4: The Conclusion
Appendix A: References
Appendix B: Voting Equipment Used in Biden Counties
Appendix C: Ranked Choice Voting (RCV)

Appendix D: Weighted Inclusive Gregory Method (WIGM)
Appendix E: Pennsylvania Dominion Configuration

Section 1: The Lie

Everybody knows that voting machines from Dominion Voting Systems (a Canadian company) are spawn of the devil and were used to steal the 2020 presidential election from President Donald J. Trump, the rightful winner.

We know for sure vote stealing happened in Pennsylvania because President Trump was leading Biden by 15.2% prior to 3am (see 3am lie).

But then extra votes were added to Biden's total by a fractional voting algorithm that manipulates the Dominion voting machine counts only in Democrat-controlled counties. This manipulation helped Biden eke out a paltry 1.2% win. Note that 1.2 is exactly 14 away from 15.2 (Trump's true winning percentage) and 14 is 1 away from 13, the floor elevators don't stop on.

As Sidney "The Kraken" Powell educated us during last week's press conference, Hugo Chavez's Smartmatic company was used to steal the 2004 election in Venezuela and Smartmatic also used to own Sequoia, the company that created the mysterious fractional voting algorithm (Al Gore rhythm? Ha!). Sequoia was bought by Dominion in 2010. Furthermore, Sequoia's cunning algorithm was incorporated into Dominion's software source code at some unknowable point in time.

Also, please ignore the fact that the fractional voting lie totally contradicts the 3am liee.

Ipso facto, hundreds of thousands of votes were illegally awarded to Biden through an insidious mechanism involving these mephistophelian co-conspirators and others:

  • Dominion Voting Systems
  • Cesar Chavez, Union Organizer
  • George Soros ('nuff said)
  • Lord Malloch-Brown of Britain
  • James Comey, former FBI man

This diabolic cabal will be fully revealed and discussed in a future Election Fraud Lies essay.

Section 2: The Rebuttal

  1. Only 2 (Erie and Montgomery) of the 14 Democratic counties that voted for Biden used equipment from Dominion Voting Systems. See Appendix B.
  2. Allocation of Biden's 81,660 vote lead across just 2 counties would be easily detectable.
  3. 2020's vote was consistent with Erie and Montgomery voter registrations and history. See Section 3.
  4. The Dominion ImageCast Precinct Scanner used in Erie and Montgomery County precincts DOES NOT have weighted (fractional) voting capability.
  5. Dominion software DOES offer weighted (fractional) voting capability with its ImageCast Central systems. This optional feature supports Ranked Choice Voting (RCV) elections. See Appendices C and D.
  6. Pennsylvania DID NOT purchase the extra-cost optional RCV software. See Appendix E.


Dominion’s Democracy Suite® provides the most comprehensive and transparent Ranked Choice Voting functionality in the market today. Ranked Choice contests allow up to 10 candidates to be presented in an easy to understand format. Source: Optional Solutions - Dominion Voting Systems

See Appendix C: Ranked Choice Voting (RCV) later in this essay for more information about RCV.

Note: Trump won PA's 2016 election by just 0.72%. Biden won 2020 by 1.2%. It is neither surprising nor indicative of fraud that Joe Biden won. Pennsylvania is, after all, a Democratic-leaning state where the Democratic candidate won 6 of the last 7 presidential elections.

The Biden counties and their respective voting equipment are summarized in the chart below and detailed in Appendix B. All 67 Pennsylvania counties use voting systems that produce voter-verifiable paper records.

Dem Counties for Biden.png

Section 3: The Analysis

Erie and Montgomery are the only Democratic counties using Dominion equipment. Most voters in those counties used a hand-marked paper ballot. Some voters used the Dominion Imagecast X to mark their paper ballot. All voters used the Dominion ImageCast Precinct Scanner to cast their completed ballot.

In addition to the 2 Democratic counties using Dominion ImageCast Precinct, 9 Republican counties used the same machine.

See Appendix a: References below for a Dominion ImageCast Precinct poll worker training video that demonstrates how the machine is used.

Erie County Analysis

Democrats outnumber Republicans by 14% in Erie County (57% to 43%). Biden beat Trump by 1% (49.8% to 48.8%). Erie County was part of the Underground Railroad, giving slaves the ability to gain freedom across Lake Erie into Canada. Erie County's median income is 33% lower than the state's median income.

Prior to 1960, Erie County was primarily Republican in presidential elections, only backing Democratic Party candidates in four elections from 1888 to 1956. Since 1960, it has become primarily Democratic, with only four Republican wins in the county in presidential elections from 1960 to the present.

Unlike most of northwestern Pennsylvania, Erie County is Democratic-leaning. The margins of victory for the Democratic presidential candidate in the 2000 through 2012 elections in Erie County were 9, 8, 20, and 16 percent, respectively. In 2016, however, Republican Donald Trump was the only Republican presidential candidate to carry Erie County since 1984.

Erie is a relatively poor, left-leaning county. The 2020 results are consistent with past results and in line with demographics. The election of 2016 saw an anomaly when the county gave Donald Trump a 1.98% victory over Hillary Clinton.

Montgomery County Analysis

Democrats outnumber Republicans by 17.6% in Montgomery County (58.8% to 41.2%). Biden beat Trump by 26.2% (62.6% to 36.4%). Montgomery borders Philadelphia and consists of densely populated suburban neighborhoods in the southern and central portions of the county and farms and open land in the extreme north. It is the 51st wealthiest county in the United States.

After voting for the Republican presidential nominee in all but one election from 1952 to 1988, Montgomery County residents have voted for the Democratic presidential nominee for the past seven consecutive elections, with the margins progressively increasing between 1992 and 2008 to 21.8%. The Democratic victory margin decreased in 2012 back to 14.3%, but rebounded to 21.3% in in 2016 and increased to 26.2% in 2020.

Despite Donald Trump's victory in the state of Pennsylvania in the 2016 election, Montgomery County was one of the few counties in Pennsylvania which swung in the Democratic presidential candidates' direction, with Hillary Clinton winning Montgomery County with 58.87% of the vote, an improvement from Barack Obama's 56.6% vote share in 2012.

Montgomery is a wealthy, left-leaning county. The 2020 results are consistent with past results and in line with demographics.

Section 4: The Conclusion

To believe there was widespread fraud, you first have to believe that Trump was capable of winning despite 4 years of 24/7 attack by the MSM and Democratic establishment and parts of the Republican establishment, in spite of Russiagate and Ukrainegate, notwithstanding an impeachment, pandemic, and recession, regardless of his appointment of 3 conservative Supreme Court justices who will work to overturn Roe v. Wade, ignoring his alienation of Latino and Black voters (however, exit polls suggest Trump increased his votes from blacks to 8% from 6% in 2016), and disregarding a public persona that rubs many the wrong way.

In addition, you must believe that Pennsylvania, a state that elected Democratic candidates every time except one since 1988, was somehow a lock for Donald Trump despite the narrowness of his victory there in 2016.

If it were not for the pandemic and recession, it's conceivable that he could have won Pennsylvania. But he badly mishandled the pandemic and couldn't convince Senator McConnell to lead Republicans to Second Stimulus Land. The PA unemployment rate in October was 7.3%.

But the fact is that Joe Biden won. Sure, there may have been some limited fraud around the edges, but any Democratic fraud was easily canceled out by equal and opposite Republican fraud. My conclusion has been and remains that there was no widespread fraud in the 2020 Presidential Election.

(Disclaimer: I didn't vote for either Trump or Biden.)

Appendix A: References

Erie County - Dominion Voting System (PDF)

Pennsylvania - Learn about your county's voting system

NBC News - Pennsylvania Election Results 2020

Pennsylvania Voter Registration Statistics by County (Excel spreadsheet)

Montgomery County, PA (Wikipedia)

Dominion ImageCast Precinct poll worker training video

California - Democracy Suite Use Procedures (PDF)

Appendix B: Voting Equipment Used in Biden Counties

Allegheny County (includes Pittsburgh)

Most voters in Allegheny County voted using a hand-marked paper ballot. Some voters used the ES&S ExpressVote 2.1 to mark their ballot. All voters used the ES&S DS 200 Precinct Scanner to cast their completed ballot.

The same system was used by Centre, Chester, Lackawanna, and Lehigh counties.

Bucks County

Most voters in Bucks County voted using a hand-marked paper ballot. Some voters voted using the Clear Ballot Clear Access Ballot Marking Device to mark their ballot. All voters cast their ballot using the Clear Cast Scanner.

The same system was used by Dauphin and Monroe counties.

Delaware County

Most voters in Delaware County voted using a hand-marked paper ballot. Some voters voted using the Hart Verity Touch Writer to mark their ballot. All voters cast their ballot using the Verity Scan Scanner.

Erie County

Some voters in Erie County used the Dominion Imagecast X to mark their ballot. Most voters voted using a hand-marked paper ballot. All voters used the Dominion ImageCast Precinct Scanner to cast their completed ballot.

The same system was used by Montgomery County.

Philadelphia County (includes Philadelphia)

All voters in Philadelphia County voted using the ES&S ExpressVote XL.

The same system was used by Northampton County.

Appendix C: Ranked Choice Voting (RCV)

[Source: Colorado - Democracy Suite EMS Results Tally & Reporting User Guide

11.2 RCV Profile (excerpted from the User Guide)

11.2.1 General Management of Profiles and Purpose

Settings that control Ranked Choice Voting (RCV) tabulation are managed through RCV profiles from the Ranked Profiles screen in Result Tally and Reporting (RTR). See Figure 11-1. You can view existing profiles by clicking Search and edit them by selecting a profile and clicking the Edit button or by double clicking a profile. You can delete existing profiles or create new ones.

RCV - Ranked Profiles main screen.png

Figure 11-1: Ranked Profiles main screen

11.2.2 Settings

The RCV profile screen, see Figure 11-2, shows all settings associated with RCV tabulation.

RCV - Profile.png

Figure 11-1: RCV Profile screen

  • Name: Each profile can be named descriptively, so it can be quickly selected at the start of a tabulation session from a list.
  • RCV Method: This will select the specific method of tabulating RCV votes to elect a winner, the following methods are supported:
    • IRV: Instant Runoff-Voting.
    • STV: Single Transferable Voting, more specifically the Weighted Inclusive Gregory Method, which implements fractional surplus transfer of elected candidates.
    • Points IRV: a modified form of Instant Run-off Voting where ranked choice voting results are evaluated on a district per district basis and each district has a set number of points (100). Elimination and declaration of winners is done on basis of points, not votes.

[I refer the reader to the full manual for more detail.]

Appendix D: Weighted Inclusive Gregory Method (WIGM)

This section is devoted to explanation of the Weighted Inclusive Gregory Method, inclusion of which in Dominion software is the likely genesis of the fractional voting lie.

Explains Single Transferable Vote and Introduces Weighted Inclusive Gregory Method.

The single transferable vote (STV) is a voting system based on proportional representation and ranked voting. Under STV, an elector's vote is initially allocated to his or her most-preferred candidate. After candidates have been either elected (winners) by reaching quota or eliminated (losers), surplus votes are transferred from winners to remaining candidates (hopefuls) according to the surplus ballots' ordered preferences.


Another method, known as Senatorial rules (after its use for most seats in Irish Senate elections), or the Gregory Method (after its inventor in 1880, J. B. Gregory of Melbourne) eliminates all randomness. Instead of transferring a fraction of votes at full value, transfer all votes at a fractional value. The formula is:

Surplus Transfer Value.png

Source: Wikipedia - Counting Single Transferable Votes

Describes how the Gregory Method is used in STV.

Description of Gregory (method)

In counting votes under a single transferable vote (STV) system, if a candidate has more than the minimum number of votes needed to be elected (Droop quota ), a procedure is needed to allocate the surplus votes to other candidates. This may be done by taking a number of ballots equal to the surplus at random from the ballots of the successful candidate and assigning votes to the next available preference shown on the ballot (that is, to candidates who have not already been elected or excluded).

In 1880, J B Gregory contended that this process of random selection could produce varying results depending on the choice of the randomly selected ballots used for making the transfers to other candidates. He suggested that all the relevant ballots should be recounted, assigned to other candidates according to the preferences of the voters, but at a reduced value called the transfer value. The transfer value is calculated by dividing the surplus votes by the total number of relevant votes.

There are three variations of the Gregory method which differ as to the definition of ‘relevant votes’ for calculating the transfer value. Gregory’s original suggestion was that only the ballots that last contributed to the creation of the surplus votes should be counted (the Gregory last parcel method). Some Australian elections use a second method, the Inclusive Gregory method, where relevant votes are defined as all the votes that contributed to a candidate’s surplus. The BC-STV system recommended by the Citizen’s Assembly uses the Weighted Inclusive Gregory method under which all votes are counted and assigned to other candidates still in the count according to the voters’ preferences, but the ballots are given separate transfer values depending on their origin (that is, whether they are first preferences, or transfers from one or more other candidates).

The Citizens’ Assembly decided that the Weighted Inclusive Gregory method was most in keeping with the goals of proportional representation by the single transferable vote, was fairer to the voters than the other options, and did not add significantly to task of counting (or recounting) ballots.

Source: Canada, Citizens' Assembly on Electoral Reform -

Here is an explanation of the two most popular Sinlge Transferable Vote (STV) rules.

Reference STV Rules

Meek. The Meek rule is based on a 1969 proposal by Brian Meek. The Meek rule is to be preferred if it’s practical to count all elections by computer.

WIGM. The “weighted inclusive Gregory method” is an evolution of an STV method first described by J B Gregory in 1880. Gregory’s original method, and several of its successors, have significant flaws, and should not be considered for adoption. WIGM is countable by hand, albeit with some effort, which is the principle reason that it might be preferred today to Meek’s method.

Source: Proportional Representation Foundation - Reference STV Rules

An explanation of how New South Wales in Australia uses STV.

For both Legislative Council and Local Government elections, NSW counts votes using a variant of Proportional Representation by Single Transferrable Vote (PR-STV). The system elects multiple members from a given electorate by a combination of quotas and preferences, electing members that the counting system determines to be the most preferred candidates.


There are two versions of the method, the Inclusive Gregory used for the Senate and the Legislative Councils in Victoria and South Australia, and the Weighted Inclusive Gregory Method used for the Western Australian Legislative Council.

Source: Australia - Preference Counting in Local Government Elections in NSW

This is how Minneapolis implemented RCV with WIGM.

In 2006, the voters of Minneapolis approved a change from traditional balloting to Ranked Choice Voting for municipal elections. See how Ranked Choice Voting was approved.

Minnesota Election law requires both federal and state certification of all electronic voting systems. Since there was not any certified equipment that could conduct a Ranked Choice Voting election, the City of Minneapolis elections staff had to hand-count the 2009 election.

It was determined that the best method to count the multiple seat offices that would comply with Minnesota law was the Weighted Inclusive Gregory Method (WIGM), which could produce the same election results in a recount.

Source: Represent Women - Minneapolis, Minnesota

Appendix E: Pennsylvania Dominion Configuration

Source: PA - Dominion Democracy Suite Final Report

Other Election Fraud Lies Essays

Election Fraud Lies: The Full List of Essays

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edg's picture

This essay covers a lot a territory. The next installment will further debunk the fractional voting meme.

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Shahryar's picture

and that's pretty easy to believe.

Even now my main impression of Hillary's campaign was the lack of rallies and the many house parties with big money donors. Specifically the one where a young lady asked about Black Lives Matter and how Hillary brushed that off and how shortly after that the young lady was escorted out! We remember all that "Her" BS and when we compare it to how we feel about Biden it's easy to see how he could pick up 2% in Pennsylvania or Wisconsin.

It's not that complicated. I think Hillary was the only person who could have lost to Trump.

[EDIT] Speaking of Biden, I see he's going to put Neera Tanden in a position. Good. The quicker it's clear that Biden isn't a solution, the better. In 2009 I made excuses for Obama's appointments, thinking the insiders were chosen because they could be tough with those who opposed the Dem platform. I learned that they were chosen because they were insiders who'd keep the status quo. Now here, we see Biden selecting the wrong people and we should realize (which I guess we do) is because he wants them there for what they are.

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edg's picture


...when elections devolve to Corrupt vs. More Corrupt.

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I think Hillary was the only person who could have lost to Trump.

Must recall that in 2016 Trump made mincemeat of a large number of GOP hopefuls. None of the boring "new Democrats" (the other wannabes that stood done in favor of her) would likely have succeeded.

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Shahryar's picture


just as the powers that be got Mayor Boot, Klobocop et al (except Warren who could siphon off votes from Bernie) to drop out on the same day (!!!) they also got every one to not run against Hillary. Bernie ran. They hate him still. O'Malley ran but he wasn't known or any threat.

Consider how the Republicans had 17 candidates...I think that's the number, in an election without an incumbent. There should have been that many Democrats running.

Now that you mention it, though, I can think of plenty of Dems who I hate possibly as much as I hate Hillary. Maybe they'd have lost, too.

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CS in AZ's picture


Don't forget the infamous Pied Piper strategy, in which their grand plan to get HER elected was to, in their words, "elevate" Trump (and other far-right/nutjob candidates) and "get the media to take them seriously" in order to boost them in the republican primary. Even then, HER knew that the only way she had a chance was to give her (what they considered to be) the worst possible candidate to run against.

If HER (and her minions) had simply stayed out of election meddling in the republican primaries, it might well have been that Trump did not do so well. Without the media boost that the Clinton campaign, in their infinite stupidity, insisted on, he might have been laughed off the stage early on. As he should have been.

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enhydra lutris's picture

obviously went into it.

be well and have a good one

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That, in its essence, is fascism--ownership of government by an individual, by a group, or by any other controlling private power. -- Franklin D. Roosevelt --

travelerxxx's picture

I like that you start with the propaganda put out by Trump and Trump-aligned outlets. It almost reads as snark, but if anyone wants they can suffer through a few minutes at some of the right-wing "news" sites. You will find that these points are indeed the ones making the rounds. Millions and millions of Americans believe what these outlets push – that Trump was cheated and won overwhelmingly.

It's the cold hard numbers that matter, and thank-you edg for bringing them to us. Of course, you took it further than just the numbers by including straightforward logic.

This took a lot of work, and I appreciate it. It's going to be useful as a reference. We may need it during the next four years. Just as the Democrats hung onto the Russiagate malarky for four years, I have little doubt the Trump crowd will do likewise with this "cheating" meme.

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edg's picture


I'm sure they'll trot out the same crap in 2022 and 2024. Gotta keep feeding raw meat to the base.

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