AntiCapitalist Meetup: First-World Problems of tourism and néo-libéralisme

DKRBhjQVoAAdo5d_1_[1]

... tourism often appears detached from the forces of structural power that characterize twenty-first century capitalism and globalization.

One of the most striking illustrations of this process in the context of tourism has been the displacement of coastal populations and land appropriations in Sri Lanka to make way for new ‘luxury’ resorts, which followed in the wake of the 2004 tsunami ...

However, it is clear that renewed waves of capital accumulation stimulated by neo-liberal globalization are reconfiguring tourism in ways that cultural analyses have failed to engage with, let alone explain or attempt to challenge…."

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(Trump Muslim travel ban countries in red)


In the midst on utter devastation, the current frivolity over speech rights at sport events distracts from a central administration that can barely acknowledge the storm destruction of Caribbean territories. And yet tourism is one aspect of a political economy that will see its crises used to distract from nativist RW hegemony. Countries dependent on tourism that become destroyed resemble the current objectives of the Trump regime: to destroy cultures and economies in order to “creatively” build new markets.

Denise Oliver Velez’s story today serves as an important background for how consumer culture is one among many disciplinary practices driving development.

INTRODUCTION

The ‘Critical Turn’ in Tourism Studies: A Radical Critique

Raoul V. Bianchi

Pages 484-504 | Published online: 02 Nov 2009

Tourism Geographies

An International Journal of Tourism Space, Place and Environment

Volume 11, 2009 - Issue 4: WORLDMAKINGS OF TOURISM

Download citation http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14616680903262653

www.tandfonline.com/...

I commend this excellent article from which I have quoted and which for those inclined, will find the references alone worth reviewing. (fair-use trolls should now simply stifle themselves).

Tourism studies, like its progenitor, Leisure Studies, is simply another subaltern discipline whose critical turns resemble those in other academic disciplines. The greater problem in Tourism Studies that it serves to study and legitimate a capitalist enterprise against which much critical analysis would suggest its elimination on a wide range of moral and ethical grounds. This is much like the heightened contradictions of “business schools” that beyond certain capitalist methodologies, at some moment and in most sub-disciplines, contain the theoretical / critical seeds of their withering away, if only they’d include them in their syllabi.

In many respects Tourism Studies appears to be increasingly divided between the unquestioning embrace of the market, on the one hand, and questions of discourse, culture, and representation on the other. This apparent rift also conceals a growing convergence around the significance of ‘culture’ and cultural analyses in tourism, brought about by greater engagement with post-structural theory and a concomitant retreat from political economy.

Accordingly, this paper evaluates the scope and potential for a revitalized radical critique of tourism that engages with issues of power, inequality and development processes in tourism whilst acknowledging the significance of cultural diversities.

www.tandfonline.com/...

This can be generalized: “the scope and potential for a revitalized radical critique of (insert Discipline) that engages with issues of power, inequality and development processes in (insert Discipline) whilst acknowledging the significance of cultural diversities.”

leprechaun-sign-funny-humor-humorous-joke-tourist-tourism-ireland-eg3rrh_1_.jpg

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The ‘critical’ turn is heralded as a ‘quiet revolution’ in tourism enquiry which seeks to ‘challenge the field's dominant discourses’ and inspire a series of critical ‘dialogues, conversations and entanglements’ into the nature of power, discourses and representations in tourism ...

In addition, it makes explicit the challenge to applied business-centred approaches which have for too long over-shadowed critical thinking in the tourism academy, at a particularly significant juncture, given the recent attacks on critical thinking in UK Business Schools...

Accordingly, this paper outlines a critique of the emergent ‘sub-discipline’ of critical Tourism Studies, as the basis from which to argue for the continued relevance of structural analyses of power and inequality in tourism, which draws predominantly on Marxist political economy and historical materialist methods of enquiry.

www.tandfonline.com/...

To re-emphasize Britton's (1991) central thesis, tourism is a major avenue of capital accumulation throughout the world, driven by free market forms of enterprise, ranging from small, independent travel firms, to highly capitalized online booking agencies and transnational corporate mega-chains in the hotel, airline and tour operator industries…

Notwithstanding the preponderance of small-scale, indigenous/household enterprise and the like, tourism capital is situated at the nexus of diverse and overlapping industries (construction, finance, property, transport, hospitality, media and communications) which manifest some of the fastest growing areas of investment and growth throughout the world…

Accordingly, tourism has been described as a ‘hyper-globalising’ activity (Hjalager 2007...

In many respects it epitomizes the material processes and values that underpin ‘neoliberal market civilisation’ (Gill 1995), in which the ‘freedom of travel’ is conjoined with the ‘freedom of trade’ (O'Byrne 2001)

www.tandfonline.com/...

‘we were too busy analyzing the pictures on the wall to notice that the wall itself had been sold’.

A New Paradigm of ‘Critical’ Enquiry in Tourism Studies?

Precisely around the time when the world began to witness the most aggressive restructuring of class power and privilege since perhaps the late nineteenth century – what might be referred to as the ‘neoliberal turn’ – (Harvey 2006), cultural analysts became increasingly preoccupied with popular culture and identity politics as arenas of empowered agency (see Frank 2001).

However, in her acclaimed critique of the interplay between globalization, branding and corporate power, Naomi Klein (2001 Klein, N.) highlights how this preoccupation led to the failure of postmodern leftists to challenge the restructuring of class power that is concealed behind the façade of empowered consumerism: ‘we were too busy analyzing the pictures on the wall to notice that the wall itself had been sold’.

signs061107_428x269_to_468x312_1_.jpgThe feminist academic Enloe (1990 Enloe, C. 1990. Bananas, Beaches and Bases: Making Feminist Sense of International Politics, Berkeley: University of California Press. [Google Scholar]: 19–20) illustrates this contradiction as follows:

No matter how good the feminist tourist's intention, the relationship between the British woman on holiday and the working women of Portugal seems to fall short of international sisterhood’.

www.tandfonline.com/...

There is little evidence to suggest that ‘critical’ tourism scholars share such a stance; however, the preoccupation with the discursive, symbolic and cultural realms of tourism has for the most part been undertaken at the expense of any sustained analysis of the structures and relations of power associated with globalization and neo-liberal capitalism.

In turn, the political orientation of the ‘critical turn’ appears largely confined to questions of culture, discourse and representation within the confines of a globalizing free market system, which remains largely external to critical scrutiny.

In addition, there is a tendency to emphasize the ‘transactional’ and ‘cultural’ basis of economic relations in tourism, which leaves one with little sense of the asymmetries of power and divisions of labour that have grown under conditions of neo-liberal capitalism and globalization, and how these are manifest in specific tourism locations...

In order to counter the alleged productivist bias of Tourism Studies, the ‘critical turn’ urges us to explore tourism as a predominantly cultural arena shaped by the mutually reinforcing relationship between circuits of tourism production and consumption (Ateljevic 2000)

www.tandfonline.com/...

There is no argument that the international political economy [of tourism] has become increasingly globalized, its structures of ownership and flows of capital increasingly transnational, and the diversity of its workforce more pronounced in some areas.

d3VqfTh_1_.jpgThe need of a constantly expanding market for its products chases the bourgeoisie over the whole surface of the globe. It must nestle everywhere, settle everywhere, establish connexions everywhere. The bourgeoisie has through its exploitation of the world market given a cosmopolitan character to production and consumption in every country (1985 [1888]: 83)

However, whether or not this amounts to such a level of complexity that it becomes impossible to identify and explain the essential workings of power in tourism, remains open to question.

Moreover it also reinforces one of the most enduring myths of neo-liberalism, that is, that it represents a more ‘disorganized’ and/or ‘complex’ phase of capitalist development, or free-for-all (Lash and Urry 1987), thus obscuring the fact that it is a process driven by the state as part of a move to restore shareholder value and the structural power of capital (Henwood 1999)

www.tandfonline.com/...

The ‘Essentialist’ Sins of Structuralist Analyses?
AAEAAQAAAAAAAAdqAAAAJDZiMzllNTk2LWNjYTEtNGI3Ny05NGQzLWViODA2MDNjNDI0YQ_1_.jpg... That is not to say that studies of consumption are unimportant, rather that it should be understood that ‘one person's consumption is another person's production’ (Perrons 1999)

Whilst Marx had specifically little to say about cultural expressions of power, there is a tendency amongst many ‘critical tourism’ scholars to either misinterpret and engage in a sweeping dismissal of the ‘modernist Marxist analysis of generalizing’ (Ateljevic 2000). However, little indication is given of which particular Marx or aspect of the Marxist canon is being referred to...

A common theme running through the ‘critical turn’ is the critique of the allegedly ‘essentialist’ nature of structuralist theories of tourism. For example, Aitchison (2001: 135) seeks to ‘contribute to the development of gender and cultural theory within tourism studies’ which transcends the ‘essentialist view of tourism relations’ whereby host societies are ‘Othered’ or otherwise regarded as ‘subaltern’ by the tourism industry and tourists.

Whilst this is a perfectly valid viewpoint in many respects, it both exaggerates the ‘essentialist’ and ‘reductionist’ crimes of certain structuralist and, in particular, Marxian modes of theorizing, and simultaneously disregards earlier critiques of the so-called ‘essentialist crimes’ of Tourism Studies...

For all the talk of a ‘critical turn’ in Tourism Studies and its claims with regard to the ability to provide more nuanced analyses of the ‘nexus of circuits operating within production–consumption dialects’ ... we are actually left with little or no understanding of the relationship between discourses and the diverse forms of capitalist development and territorial logics of state power of which tourism constitutes a key part.

In addition, according to Judd (2006) the emphasis on tourism predominantly as a system of consumption rather than production has eclipsed analyses of tourism's political economy.

... That is not to say that studies of consumption are unimportant, rather that it should be understood that ‘one person's consumption is another person's production’ (Perrons 1999)

www.tandfonline.com/...

...This does not mean to suggest that states are powerless in the face of rampant neo-liberal globalization. Indeed, the error of ‘orthodox’ Marxism was to see the state as determined by the economic base. In fact, Marx himself recognized the crucial role of the state in the development of capitalism in England during the initial period of ‘primitive accumulation’ (Marx 1974 Marx, K. 1974. Capital, Vol. 1, London: Lawrence & Wishart. [1887] [Google Scholar] [1887]: part viii).

Indeed, the apparent separation between the economic and political spheres is an assumption which has its roots in liberal political theory and neo-classical economics rather than Marxist political economy. Whilst Marxist analyses have fallen short of a comprehensive and nuanced analysis of the distinctive configurations of states and their relationship to capital, there is nothing within a historical materialist analysis that precludes this (see Rupert and Smith 2002).
7a769d42bfab84c19f4b5d3e81ddbf8d_1_.jpgNeo-liberal globalization has not so much been accompanied by the withdrawal of the state from the market but rather, the power of the state has been reconfigured along the lines of a ‘market-based free enterprise system’ (Gill 1995) in order to optimize the conditions of capital accumulation: ‘the nation-state is now more dedicated than ever to creating a good business climate for investment, which means precisely controlling and repressing labour movements in all kinds of purposively new ways …’ (Harvey 2000).

In response to the economic crises and recessions of the 1970s, governments (particularly in the UK and USA) orchestrated a range of monetary, fiscal and trade reforms, which set in motion a reorganization of the balance of power between the state, capital and labour, and intensified the global forces of capital accumulation.

This process is defined by Harvey (2005: 145–52) as ‘accumulation by dispossession’ and echoes Marx's original concept of primitive accumulation (see Perelman, 2000 ]), though it is adapted in the current context of neo-liberal globalization. Harvey (2006: 43–50) isolates four principal mechanisms –

  • privatization,
  • financialization;
  • the orchestration of crises and devaluations; and,
  • state redistributions from labour to capital –

through which the neo-liberal state has engineered the release of numerous assets (including labour power) at very low (and in some instances ‘zero’) cost into the ‘privatized mainstream of capital accumulation’, in order that they be put into profitable use (Harvey 2005).

One of the most striking illustrations of this process in the context of tourism has been the displacement of coastal populations and land appropriations in Sri Lanka to make way for new ‘luxury’ resorts, which followed in the wake of the 2004 tsunami ...

However, it is clear that renewed waves of capital accumulation stimulated by neo-liberal globalization are reconfiguring tourism in ways that cultural analyses have failed to engage with, let alone explain or attempt to challenge….

www.tandfonline.com/...

This perhaps is all too much meta- but it is important to acknowledge how important is the conjoining of cultural/critical studies to political economic methodologies.

Conclusion

The ‘critical turn’ in Tourism Studies is seen as an innovative and substantive turning point in enquiry into tourism, which provides a focus for the critique of the dominant industry-focused, positivist analytical frameworks in tourism research, thus heralding a new way of thinking about as well as engaging with tourism. However, its post-structuralist theoretical underpinnings, coupled with a tendency to dismiss materialist structuralist theorizing as ‘essentialist’, undermines its professed emancipatory ideals (see Chambers 2007).

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In turning away from the interrogation of the economic and political relations of power within the manifold settings of tourism, it has little to say about the material inequalities, working conditions, ecological degradation and patterns of social polarization that are manifest in twenty-first century tourism.

Thus, contrary to its stated aims, the ‘critical turn’ is in danger of leaving the study of the working of markets, capital and the state in tourism to the very industry-led institutions and analysts it professes to challenge.

This is not an argument against cultural analysis, nor does it imply that the exploration of tourist consumption, discourses and representations is unimportant. It merely suggests that the world of work and associated organization of production appears to be an increasingly marginal concern within ‘critical’ tourism scholarship at a time when it is arguably most needed...

Whilst acknowledging and indeed building on this new spirit of critical enquiry, a genuinely critical project must find ways of integrating the study of discourses with agency, as well as material forms of power if it is to constitute a radical departure from the status quo in Tourism Studies.

Marxist theory alone is insufficient, although not inadequate, for this. However, recent developments in international political economy have begun to explore the interface between Foucauldian, (neo)-Gramscian and Marxist approaches which may offer several routes out of the current impasse between the embrace of the market, on the one hand, and preoccupation with discourse and culture, on the other.

With this in mind, a critical radicalism should be simultaneously sensitive to the plural subjectivities and cultural diversities within contemporary societies and grounded in a structural analysis of the material forces of power and inequality within globalizing capitalism and liberalized modes of tourism development. Perhaps then, the ‘critical turn’ can make the transition from an ‘academy of hope’ to a project that is emancipatory in substance.

www.tandfonline.com/...

 

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Comments

mimi's picture

is

In turning away from the interrogation of the economic and political relations of power within the manifold settings of tourism, it has little to say about the material inequalities, working conditions, ecological degradation and patterns of social polarization that are manifest in twenty-first century tourism.

oh yes, you can say that again.

Material inequalities and working conditions... Yep, I (or my son) have seen them close-up on cruisehips that circle the Hawaiian Islands. None of the workers on the ship could afford to spend one night in a resort that those ships pass along their trips and send their passengers to via excursions. Few of the workers actually would want that either, after having worked on the bottom lines of the tourism industry.

The reason why cruise ship jobs are still 'desired' is that too many of the workers would be homeless on the mainland (of the US or the islands). Their salaries can't pay the rents. Workers who work for ten to thirty years on cruiseships just to be barely able to buy a property, that then is paid off, when they retire.

Ecological degradation: Huge. Visible within the last ten years on Maui.

Social polarization... you bet. Never seen more - so far mostly silent resentments and anger - towards the tourism that brings jobs, steals land, and steals cultural dignity of the native and local working population. It tears your heart apart.

I try to convince my son to be critical about the future of jobs in the tourism industry, because I am convinced that quite a few of the tourists are already very disappointed about how the nature and wildlife, they came to experience and seeing, is being destroyed by basically ... themselves. How much more mind-boggling does it get?

The latest trend is to sell the sustainable living, organic, healthy, vegan, spiritual lifestyle issues via the eco-tourism industry and the 'adventure tourism' for folks who have to prove themselves via all sorts of unnatural sports. It may be fun, but it is disturbing the wildlife. Both genres of tourism is already taken up by global corporations, but as it sounds so 'alternative' and is so 'well intentioned', people fall for it. Meanwhile the vegan-extremists, religiously fixated on spiritualism is sold out by the next around the corner of the hundreds of spiritual quacksalvers (with their extremely high priced services) on this tiny island. It's all sold to make profit for the 'alternative life-stylists' gurus, who want to heal your soul and save your heart and minds.

On top of that, the ordinary population can't afford to eat vegan style, they eat junk food and live off Cosco, whereas the few local independnet farmers can't sell their produdts, as their prices are undercut by global corporate wholesalers, like Cosco, Walmart etc. Aldi would be successful on the islands, people can't buy costly produce. Only the 'rich' tourist or 'rich colonial or imperial style corporate investors from the mainland" can afford "locally grown, organic produce". Ok, I have to shut up now. It all makes me so angry.

I have to read the article several times to go through the scientific lingo.

I read also Densie Oliver Velez article on TOP and found it excellent. I wished there were a professional who would write about similar issues within the Hawaiian population. If the Carribeans anchestry is complex, I wonder how to call the Hawaiian population's anchestry... I call it so complicated you could lose your sanity over, which, by the way is also a sub-issue of the eco-tourism industry, the mental health impact on its consumers and workers and the native population of the islands.

The only thing a little easier on the Hawaiian anchestry issues is the fact that here people are so mixed that you can't describe them in terms of black and white. But all other ethnic markers get recognized. Who likes whom is not clear. Who hates whom is not clear. Aloha spirit doesn't like to have it expressed. Mahalo.

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"“What difference does it make to the dead, the orphans and the homeless, whether the mad destruction is wrought under the name of totalitarianism or the holy name of liberty or democracy?” - Ghandi

I comment only to point out something regarding media coverage of the so-called "Trump travel ban," only because of an interest in truth (or not) in reporting from establishment media. IOW, as we all know, watch out for propaganda and catapulting of the propaganda masquerading as news.

Trump's action is not a travel ban, nor is it exclusive to Trump. Months ago, Trump imposed additional restrictions upon travelers to the US from certain nations, the same seven Muslim nations that a law signed by President Obama had singled out for travel restrictions above and beyond those the US imposes on travelers from, say, France. The law that Obama signed had singled out those seven Muslim nations because those nations had been identified as "nations of concern" in terms of danger to the US. (At least that was true of Trump's original list. This time, Trump added North Korea and Venezuela and may have dropped a Middle Eastern nation or two. I have not compared the more recent list of Middle Eastern with the list that Trump--and Obama--had used previously.)

When put that way, the alleged "Trump travel ban" seems somewhat less arbitrary and novel than at first blush. Additionally, the choice of nations seems a lot less like "evidence" that Trump is more "Islamaphobic" than the administrations of the four or five President who preceded Trump. That, I suspect, is exactly the reason establishment media and others almost never do put it that way, at least not initially.

As media are well aware, studies show that: (1) most people read only headlines and (2) the first version people read or hear of an event is the one that tends to sticks with them, even if corrected later. Indeed, a later retraction or correction may serve only to reinforce the original incorrect or misleading version! (Ever notice that, when government "corrects" information that it had previously issued, the later version is always less rosy than the first? Monthly Labor statistics issued by the Obama administration in the early years of his first term, when the economy was horrific, are a perfect example.)

Defending Trump, who bites, IMO, is not my motivation for the post. I simply prefer accurate information to misleading "journalism" and believe major media outlets should be demonstrating the same preference. When they don't, I sometimes like to point that out.

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Support for my statements in the first part of this post:

https://www.forbes.com/sites/jaysondemers/2016/08/08/59-percent-of-you-w...

http://www.spring.org.uk/2009/09/why-you-cant-help-believing-everything-...

https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/science-choice/201504/what-is-confi...

The Obama connection

The travel part of Trump’s order does target the same seven countries that were singled out with a law Obama signed in December 2015..

http://www.politifact.com/wisconsin/statements/2017/feb/07/reince-priebu... (This politifact article was written about the original additional restrictions that Trump sought, not the recent ones.) Were it not for Reince Priebus's comment about this Obama-era law (and the eagerness of media to nitpick it), we may never have heard about the Obama era law at all.

Example of a misleading headline (which most people may not read beyond), which is stated more accurately in the body of the story (which most people may not read at all):

Trump signs new travel ban with enhanced vetting

Last Updated Sep 24, 2017 7:58 PM EDT

President Trump has signed a presidential proclamation with new restrictions on travel to the United States as his existing ban on visitors from six Muslim-majority countries was set to expire Sunday, 90 days after it went into effect, according to senior administration officials.

On a background call about the new restrictions, the officials said restrictions will apply to Chad, Iran, Libya, North Korea, Somalia, Syria, Venezuela and Yemen, which have all been deemed to have "inadequate" identity-management protocols, information-sharing practices, and risk factors. The U.S. is implementing travel limitations and restrictions unique to the foreign nationals of each country.

https://www.cbsnews.com/news/donald-trump-new-travel-ban-enhanced-vetting/ (Note: Even the body of the article is garbled as to restrictions vs. ban and whether the current list of nations is the same as the original list. The original Trump list had named only Middle Eastern Muslim nations, the very same nations as on the Obama era list. Yet, I don't recall a furor about Presidential--or Congressional--Islamaphobia before Trump.

Again, in my opinion, Trump bites--and so do media outlets that try to manipulate and propagandize us while purporting to be informing us objectively. Trump may very well be Islamaphobic, but the list of nations is not proof of that. However, the travel restrictions Trump imposed upon travelers from those nations, above and beyond the restrictions that existed when Trump took office, may be more onerous than necessary. If so, isn't that what we should be discussing, rather than a ban that does not exist?

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snoopydawg's picture

good point, Henry.

The law that Obama signed had singled out those seven Muslim nations because those nations had been identified as "nations of concern" in terms of danger to the US.

How many people from those countries have threatened or attacked this country? None. According to our government propaganda, which country has actually attacked ours? What was the nationality of 15/19 of the terrorists? Which country had information regarding the activities of those hijackers and left out of the 9/11 hearings? Which country is considered the biggest supporter funding and arming terrorists who have committed terrorism in many countries? And which country has been accused of human rights violations and tortures, flogs and beheads its citizens? This would be Saudi Arabia which our country sells them the weapons that they turn around and give to the terrorists.
People who are upset with Trump's actions regarding his travel ban and ICE arresting illegal immigrants didn't speak out against the record breaking number of people that Obama deported.

Very good point about what people hear or see when they listen to the radio or only read the headlines and believing it even if it has been corrected or retracted.
I wrote about this yesterday regarding what newspaper's write in their headlines and then what they write inside the article. They start with a statement that says "evidence shows that Russia hacked into state's voting machines", but then inside it says that "the FBI warned that Russia attempted to hack into state voting machines, but there is no proof that they were successful according to a source who isn't authorized to comment on this".
People probably won't see or hear what the article actually says because they have already made up their minds because of the headlines.

How much longer is this country going to have amnesia on the same things that Obama did and now what Trump is doing? When I read about the number of people who were killed by our military and drones, I have a hard time remembering that Obama is no longer the president.

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a longtime oligarch eugenics plan is already well underway

earth is the insane asylum for the universe

@snoopydawg

nothing like that in the story at all.

don't think this is an accident. they lead with the lie & correct in small print.
people remember the lie.

saw this discussed at c99. and here we are today.
time to make a donation.

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Alligator Ed's picture

Countries dependent on tourism that become destroyed resemble the current objectives of the Trump regime: to destroy cultures and economies in order to “creatively” build new markets.

This quote is every bit as applicable to Obama as it is to Trump. Both are bad actors.

This article, well-supported by references as it is, strikes me of too much academia and artificial distinctions, most of which is not clarified in the text, but may be so in the linked articles. "Reductionist" tendencies is not well-described in the text although

the ‘essentialist view of tourism relations’ whereby host societies are ‘Othered’ or otherwise regarded as ‘subaltern’ by the tourism industry and tourists.

is better defined.

The very concept of "critical turn" is outstandingly academic, devoid of understandable intelligence to the common reader--and c99 readers are far from common.

The ‘critical’ turn is heralded as a ‘quiet revolution’ in tourism enquiry which seeks to ‘challenge the field's dominant discourses’ and inspire a series of critical ‘dialogues, conversations and entanglements’ into the nature of power, discourses and representations in tourism (Ateljevic et al. 2007a Ateljevic, I., Morgan, N. and Pritchard, A. 2007a. “Editors' introduction: Promoting an academy of hope in tourism enquiry”. In The Critical Turn in Tourism Studies: Innovative Research Methodologies, Edited by: Ateljevic, I., Pritchard, A. and Morgan, N. 1–8. Amsterdam: Elsevier.
[Crossref], [Google Scholar]
: 1–2). To a significant extent the critical turn is the product of the ‘cultural turn’ in the social sciences and the increased influence of post-structuralist [critical] theory in Leisure and Tourism Studies (see Rojek and Urry 1997 Rojek, C. and Urry, J., eds. 1997. Touring Cultures: Transformations of Travel and Theory, London: Routledge.
[Crossref], [Google Scholar]
; Crouch 1999 Crouch, D., ed. 1999. Leisure/Tourism Geographies: Practices and Geographical Knowledge, London: Routledge.
[Google Scholar]
; Aitchison et al. 2000 Aitchison, C., Macleod, N. E. and Shaw, S. 2000. Leisure and Tourism Landscapes: Social and Cultural Geographies, London: Routledge.
[Google Scholar]
; Rojek 2000 Rojek, C. 2000. Leisure and Culture, Basingstoke: Macmillan.
[Crossref], [Google Scholar]
; Aitchison 2001 Aitchison, C. 2001. Theorizing other discourses of tourism, gender and culture: Can the subaltern speak (in tourism)?. Tourist Studies, 1(2): 133–147.
[Crossref], [Google Scholar]
; 2006 Aitchison, C. 2006. The critical and the cultural: Explaining the divergent paths of leisure studies and tourism studies. Leisure Studies, 25(4): 417–422.
[Taylor & Francis Online], [Google Scholar]
; Ateljevic et al. 2005 Ateljevic, I., Harris, C., Wilson, E. and Collins, F. 2005. Getting ‘entangled’: Reflexivity and the ‘critical turn’ in tourism studies. Tourism Recreation Research Theme – Tourism and Research, 30(2): 9–21.
[Taylor & Francis Online], [Google Scholar]
; 2007b Ateljevic, I., Pritchard, A. and Morgan, N. 2007b. The Critical Turn in Tourism Studies: Innovative Research Methodologies, Amsterdam: Elsevier.
[Google Scholar]
). Accordingly, it seeks to counter the alleged ‘productivist bias’ of Tourism Studies (Urry 1990 Urry, J. 1990. The Tourist Gaze: Leisure and Travel in Contemporary Societies, London: Sage.
[Google Scholar]
: 14), and to address both leisure and tourism as ‘predominantly cultural phenomena’ (Aitchison 2006 Aitchison, C. 2006. The critical and the cultural: Explaining the divergent paths of leisure studies and tourism studies. Leisure Studies, 25(4): 417–422.
[Taylor & Francis Online], [Google Scholar]
: 419). Where dominant knowledge practices are heavily (post)positivist, quantitative and laden with ‘business prerogatives’, the ‘critical turn’ seeks to bring about a paradigmatic shift in tourism thinking which embraces multiple worldviews and cultural differences (Pritchard and Morgan 2007 Pritchard, A. and Morgan, N. 2007. “De-centring tourism's intellectual universe, or traversing the dialogue between change and tradition”. In The Critical Turn in Tourism Studies: Innovative Research Methodologies, Edited by: Ateljevic, I., Pritchard, A. and Morgan, N. 11–28. Amsterdam: Elsevier.
[Crossref], [Google Scholar]
: 11). Most important of all, perhaps, the ‘critical turn’ is an explicitly political project, which embodies ‘more than simply a way of knowing, an ontology, it is a way of being, a commitment to tourism enquiry which is pro-social justice, equality and anti-oppression: it is an academy of hope’

All this may be true but it is certainly opaque. This essay would be well-placed in academic sociology, economic, or financial journals. But it is too abstruse for the non-academic reader to fully grasp. I have a dislike for terms like post-modern, post-reductionist or other nomenclature not readily understandable without a detailed definition of each.

Disclosure: I usually don't read this section: anti-capitalist meet up.

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mimi's picture

you took a stand for 'us dummies'.

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"“What difference does it make to the dead, the orphans and the homeless, whether the mad destruction is wrought under the name of totalitarianism or the holy name of liberty or democracy?” - Ghandi